- Wind and Hybrid Technology
turbines use the wind to produce electrical power. A turbine with fan blades is
placed at the top of a tall tower. The towers are tall in order to harness the
wind at a greater velocity, free of turbulence caused by interference from obstacles
such as trees, hills and buildings. As the turbine rotates in the wind, a generator
produces electrical power. A single wind turbine can range in size from a few
kW for residential applications to more than 5 MW.
- Size Range:
Several kW - 5 MW
- Fuel: Wind
- Other Features:
Various types and sizes
Status: Wind turbines are widely available
The map below
shows the installed wind capacity in megawatts.
individual wind turbines are grouped into wind farms containing several turbines.
Many wind farms are MW scale, ranging from a few MWs to tens of MWs. Wind farms
or smaller wind projects may be connected directly to utility distribution systems.
The larger wind farms are often connected to sub-transmission lines. The small-scale
wind farms and individual units are typically defined as distributed generation.
Residential systems (5-15 kW) are available; however, they are generally not suitable
for urban or small-lot suburban homes due to large space requirements.
Developers and manufacturers of DG are looking for ways to combine technologies
to improve performance and efficiency of distributed generation equipment. Several
examples of hybrid systems include:
- Solid oxide
fuel cell combined with a gas turbine or microturbine
- Stirling engine
combined with a solar dish (see the photograph)
- l Wind turbines
with battery storage and diesel backup generators
- Engines (and
other prime movers) combined with energy storage devices such as flywheels
turbine hybrid system can provide electrical conversion efficiencies of 60 to
70%. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine concepts rely on the principle that fuel
cell efficiency and reaction speed will improve when the fuel-cell stack operates
above atmospheric pressure. By operating the fuel cell stack at 4 atmospheres
or higher, it is possible to integrate the fuel cell with a gas turbine. In this
hybrid arrangement, the gas turbine compressor is used to pressurize the fuel
cell, then the hot exhaust from the fuel cell stack, which still contains 50%
of the fuel's energy (as unreacted fuel and waste heat), is fed back into the
turbine, combusted and expanded to extract more energy. Energy recovered from
a recuperator is used to help heat inlet air for the fuel cell stack and the compressor.)
are working to develop Stirling engine/solar dish hybrid systems. These kinds
of hybrid systems are small, with typical outputs in the range of about 5 to 25
kW. This size makes dish/Stirling hybrids ideal for stand-alone or other decentralized
applications, such as replacement of diesel generators. Larger dish/Stirling plants
with outputs of 1 to 20 MW could be developed to meet moderate-scale grid-connected
applications. Dish/Stirling hybrids can also be designed to run on fossil fuels
for operation when there is no sunshine.
can be used in combination with energy storage and some type of backup generation
(i.e., reciprocating engine, turbine, or fuel cell) to provide steady power supply
to remote locations not connected to the grid.
devices such as flywheels are being combined with reciprocating engines and microturbines
to provide a reliable backup power supply. The energy storage device provides
ride-through capability to enable the backup power supply to get started. In this
way, electricity users can have an interruption-free backup power supply.