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  Glossary
 

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Absorptance:
A measure of the ability of a body or substance to absorb radiation as expressed by the ratio of the absorbed radiant or luminous flux to the incident radiant or luminous flux.
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Alligatoring (Finish Defect):
Flaking where the center part of the flake remains attached to the substrate.
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Black Body:
Having an emissivity of 1, black bodies are perfect radiators and absorbers.
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Bleeding (Finish Defect):
Seeping of color from a sub-coat through the topcoat.
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Blistering (Finish Defect):
Appearance of bubbles in the topcoat.
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Blushing (Finish Defect):
Whitish haze that appears on coatings when they are cured in the presence of excessive moisture.
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Chalking Progressive (Finish Defect):
Conversion of the coating to a dull powder from the surface to the substrate.
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Checking (Finish Defect):
Formation of very fine parallel cracks.
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Chipping (Finish Defect):
Removal of very small areas of the coating by objects striking the cured surface.
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Coatings:
Process performed to dried paper to provide improved gloss, slickness, color, printing, detail, and brilliance. Coating is typically a layer made up primarily of fine mineral pigment.
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Conduction:
Transfer of heat through objects or from physical contact between one object and another.
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Conductivity:
Property of the material that describes how easily heat can pass through it.
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Convection:
Heat transfer between a moving fluid or an object.
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Cooldown Rate:
Typically the time it takes for the heater to go from its peak operating temperature to 250°F or less.
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Cracking (Finish Defect):
Formation of cracks in the coating.
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Cross Direction Profiling:
Also known as moisture profiling. An application of infrared heating to reduce lateral moisture variations in the paper web.
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Decorative Coatings:
Coatings primarily used for aesthetic purposes. Typically composed of thermoset polymers.
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Electromagnetic Radiation:
Includes a spectrum of wavelike particles that include gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared, microwaves, radar, and television and radio waves. Energy emitted or transmitted in the form of particles called photons that can travel through a vacuum.
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Emission:
Production of electromagnetic radiation by matter.
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Emissivity:
Indicates how well a surface will give off or absorb radiation. If the surface has an emissivity of 1, it's a perfect radiator or absorber.
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Flaking or Peeling (Finish Defect):
Separation of a coating from its substrate.
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Forced Convection:
Convection that is stimulated or catalyzed by external forces (such as cool air from an air conditioner).
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Functional Coatings:
Coatings primarily used to protect a surface from physical or chemical damage or to reduce thermal or electrical conduction. Typically composed of thermoplastic polymers.
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Heat:
A form of energy, known as thermal energy, due to atoms and molecules vibrating.
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Heat Transfer:
There are three types of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation.
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Heatup Rate:
Typically the time it takes to go from a cold start to 90% of maximum radiant output.
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Hertz:
Frequency of wave vibration, or number of cycles per second.
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Hot Pressing:
Paper drying process where supplemental heat is applied ahead of the press section to raise the water temperature in the web.
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Incandescence:
Emission of photons by a material as a result of its thermal energy.
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Industrial Coatings:
Enamels, lacquers, and other coatings used to protect or decorate materials used in manufactured goods.
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Industrial Grade Paper:
Paper grade that includes bag paper, linerboard, and construction paper.
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Infrared Radiation:
Light that is emitted or absorbed as a result of changes in the translational energy of free electrons.
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Input Rate of Heater:
Maximum energy input to the heater, expressed as Btu/hr, lineal feet of heater or square feet of heater surface.
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Long Wavelength Infrared:
Heaters with an emitter surface temperature below 1200°F. Peak radiation occurs between 4 and 6 microns.
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Maximum Application Temperature:
When the temperature of the product and the heating enclosure climb into the same range of the heater.
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Mechanical Durability:
A heater's ability to withstand its environment without failing prematurely.
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Medium Wavelength Infrared:
Heaters with an emitter surface temperature between 2000 and 2500°F. Peak radiation occurs between 2 and 4 microns.
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Moisture Profiling:
Also known as cross direction profiling. An application of infrared heating to reduce lateral moisture variations in the paper web.
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Natural Convection:
Convection that is not stimulated or catalyzed by external forces.
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Opaque Material:
Material that will not let any radiation pass through. For example, a sheet of metal is an opaque material.
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Orange Peel (Finish Defect):
Uneven coating finish resembling the surface of an orange.
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Powder Coatings:
Polymer resins of low molecular weight are combined with pigments, initiators, and other additives to create powder coatings. They are thoroughly mixed and carefully ground to a very fine powder of consistent particle size. They are electrostatically applied to substrate, and heated for uniform placement.
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Preheating Section:
Infrared heaters constitute a preheating section when placed between the press section and the first steam dryer.
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Printing Grade Paper:
Paper grade that includes newsprint, catalog paper, publication paper, and bond paper.
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Radiant and Combined Energy Conversion Efficiency:
Percentage of total input to the radiant heater that is converted into useful output.
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Radiation:
Energy emitted or transmitted in the form of waves. Electromagnetic radiation is of interest with industrial process heating.
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Reflectivity:
Fraction of incoming radiation that is reflected away when it strikes a workpiece surface.
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Semi-Transparent Material:
Material that acts like a filter or strainer (for example, a sheet of glass or plastic).
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Short Wavelength Infrared:
Emitted by heaters with an emitter surface temperature of 3500°F or higher. Peak radiation occurs at wavelengths between 1 and 2 microns.
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Spectral Energy Distribution:
The breakdown of the heater's radiant output by the wavelengths of its radiation.
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Spotting (Finish Defect):
Discoloration that appears on the surface due to contamination.
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Substrate:
Surface material of the workpiece to which a coating is applied. May consist of metal, plastic, wood, particle board, cloth, glass, ceramic, paper, paperboard, minerals, or other materials.
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Surface Sizing:
Process performed to dried paper to provide the paper surface with a resistance to aqueous solutions.
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Thermoforming:
Process of heat-softening flat sheets of plastic and then drawing them into a mold to a certain shape.
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Thermoplastic Powder Coatings:
Thermoplastic powders do not react chemically during their application or baking. Consequently, these materials remelt after cooling when they are reheated. Typical usage includes wire good coatings and valves for corrosion protection.
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Thermosetting Powder Coatings:
These powder coatings react chemically during their application to form a polymer network that is more resistant to breakdown. The coatings are based on epoxy resins and do not melt if reheated. Motor rotors and stators are coated using thermosetting powders.
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Tissue Grade Paper:
Paper grade that includes sanitary tissues, wrapping tissue and towling.
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Transmittance:
Portion of the radiation that enters the surface of the workpiece but passes through without being absorbed.
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Turndown:
Ratio of the heater's maximum heat input (or output) to its minimum input (or output) (i.e., its operating flexibility). It is a measure of the heater's ability to respond to variations in product loading without mis-gauging the temperature.
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Wavelength:
Distance between adjacent peaks or oscillations in a wave.
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White Bodies:
Having an emissivity of 0, white bodies can not radiate or absorb - they are perfect reflectors.
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